World Tuberculosis Day 2023: Everything You Need To Know About TB

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can infect almost any tissue of the body, especially the lungs. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

According to the WHO, there are about 10 million people in the world are sick with TB and in 2021, a total of 1.6 million people died from the infection. Globally, Africa records the second highest prevalence of TB – 23% behind South-East Asia at 45%. In 2020, Nigeria had the highest number of TB cases in Africa – 9.9 million people.

The lungs are primarily affected

What happens in tuberculosis?

All cases of TB are transmitted between persons via respiratory droplets. For instance, when someone with TB infection coughs, sneezes, or talks, tiny droplets of saliva or mucus are expelled into the air which can be inhaled by another person. Once the infectious particles reach the alveoli (small sac-like structures in the air spaces in the lung), another group of cells called macrophages (immune cells of the body), engulf the TB bacteria. The bacteria are then transmitted to the lymphatic system and bloodstream. Once this happens, there is spread to other body organs.

The bacteria multiplies further in organs that have a rich oxygen supply such as the upper lobes of the lungs, kidneys, bone marrow, and meninges (membrane-like coverings of the brain and spinal cord).

What is latent TB?

This is a state where an individual has the bacteria in his body, but his immune system stops them from spreading. This individual will not manifest any symptom nor is he contagious. The infection is however still alive in his body and can become active one day.

Signs and symptoms of TB

Common signs and symptoms include:

  • A cough that lasts more than 3 weeks
  • Chest pain
  • Coughing of blood
  • Feeling tired
  • Drenching night sweats
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss

How is tuberculosis diagnosed?

Your doctor will take a detailed history of all the symptoms you have. This is followed by a physical examination which would involve checking your lymph nodes for swelling. It would also involve listening to your chest with a stethoscope.

Skin tests are used for screening. Blood tests may be used to confirm or rule out latent or active tuberculosis. These tests use sophisticated technology to measure the body’s immune response to TB infection. Imaging tests which could be a chest X-ray or a CT scan may show white spots in the lungs where the immune systems has walled off the bacteria or changes in the lungs that imply an active infection. Sputum test is also done to confirm TB infection.

Imaging tests are usually required

Treatment of tuberculosis

With adequate treatment, tuberculosis is almost always curable. Doctors prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria that cause it. You may need to take these medications for 6-12 months. The medications you take and how long you’ll have to take them depends on the organs affected and the sensitivity of the bacteria. Sometimes, the antibiotics used to treat the disease don’t work. This type of TB is called drug-resistant TB. If you have this form of the disease, you may need to take stronger medications for longer.

The four main drugs used are ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin.

A word from HealthFacts to you

Nigeria has the highest burden of TB infection in Africa. It is expedient to bring this disease under control. Once you notice one or more of the previously highlighted symptoms of the infection, visit your doctor immediately for proper treatment.

Till next time, stay informed and stay healthy.

Suggested Reading: Antibiotics Use: Six mistakes you’re making


  1. Thank you for every other informative web site. Where else
    may just I am getting that type of info written in such a perfect method?
    I have a undertaking that I’m simply now operating on, and I
    have been on the glance out for such information.

  2. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have understand your
    stuff previous to and you’re just too great. I really like what you
    have acquired here, really like what you are stating and the way in which you say it.
    You make it entertaining and you still care for to
    keep it wise. I cant wait to read far more
    from you. This is really a great site.

  3. Hi there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the images aren’t loading properly.
    I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.

    I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same outcome.

  4. Hello! I know this is sort of off-topic but I had to ask.
    Does operating a well-established blog like yours take
    a large amount of work? I’m brand new to running a blog but I do
    write in my diary daily. I’d like to start a blog
    so I can share my personal experience and views online. Please let me know if you have any kind
    of ideas or tips for brand new aspiring bloggers.

  5. Simply desire to say your article is as amazing. The clearness for
    your submit is simply nice and i can assume you’re an expert in this
    subject. Fine together with your permission allow me to seize your feed to stay updated with forthcoming post.
    Thank you 1,000,000 and please carry on the gratifying work.

  6. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but
    after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me.
    Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be book-marking
    and checking back frequently!

  7. Greetings from Carolina! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to browse your
    blog on my iphone during lunch break. I enjoy the info you provide here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.

    I’m amazed at how fast your blog loaded on my mobile .. I’m not
    even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyways, fantastic blog!

  8. You really make it appear so easy along with your presentation but I find
    this topic to be actually something which I believe I’d by no means understand.
    It kind of feels too complicated and very broad for me.

    I’m taking a look ahead to your subsequent post, I will attempt to get the
    dangle of it!

  9. I think this is one of the such a lot important
    info for me. And i am glad reading your article.
    However want to statement on some normal things,
    The web site taste is great, the articles is truly nice : D.

    Good activity, cheers

  10. This is very interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger. I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your fantastic post.
    Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks!

  11. My brother suggested I might like this web site. He was entirely
    right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine simply how much time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  12. Wonderful beat ! I would like to apprentice even as you amend your website, how can i
    subscribe for a weblog web site? The account helped me a acceptable deal.

    I have been tiny bit familiar of this your
    broadcast provded vivid trransparent idea

  13. You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation however I to
    find this matter to be actually something that I
    think I’d by no means understand. It seems too complicated and extremely large for
    me. I am having a look ahead to your subsequent submit, I’ll try to
    get the hold of it!

  14. Undeniably believe that which you stated. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the internet the simplest
    thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think about worries that they plainly do
    not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top
    and defined out the whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal.
    Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

  15. Hello, Neat post. There is an issue with your website in internet explorer,
    could test this? IE nonetheless is the marketplace chief
    and a big component to folks will leave out your
    excellent writing due to this problem.

  16. Someone necessarily help to make significantly articles I might
    state. This is the first time I frequented your web page and
    so far? I surprised with the research you made to make this particular put up incredible.
    Wonderful task!

  17. I like the helpful information you provide for your articles.
    I’ll bookmark your blog and take a look at again right here frequently.
    I am slightly certain I’ll be told many new stuff proper here!

    Best of luck for the following!

  18. I’m really enjoying the design and layout
    of your blog. It’s a very easy on the eyes which makes it much
    more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire
    out a designer to create your theme? Excellent work!

  19. Just desire to say your article is as astonishing. The clearness on your put up is just nice
    and that i can think you are knowledgeable on this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grasp your feed to keep updated
    with drawing close post. Thanks 1,000,000 and please keep up
    the enjoyable work.

  20. Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?

    you made blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is great, let alone
    the content!

  21. Greate pieces. Keep writing such kind of info on your site.
    Im really impressed by your site.
    Hello there, You have done an excellent job. I’ll definitely digg it and for my part recommend to my friends.
    I am confident they will be benefited from this site.

  22. I am really loving the theme/design of your web site.
    Do you ever run into any browser compatibility issues?
    A couple of my blog readers have complained about my website
    not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox.
    Do you have any solutions to help fix this issue?

  23. Hi just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know
    a few of the images aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same results.

  24. Thank you for any other excellent article.
    Where else may just anybody get that type of information in such an ideal way of
    writing? I have a presentation next week, and I’m on the search for such information.

  25. Hola! I’ve been reading your blog for a long time now and finally got the courage to go ahead and give
    you a shout out from Houston Texas! Just wanted to tell you keep up the fantastic job!

  26. Does your site have a contact page? I’m having trouble locating
    it but, I’d like to shoot you an e-mail. I’ve got some
    creative ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing.

    Either way, great website and I look forward to seeing it improve over

  27. آموزش نصب درب اتوماتیک شیشه ای و درب
    اتوماتیک شیشه ای رامادر و نرم افزار درب اتوماتیک شیشه ای و
    استخدام نصاب درب اتوماتیک شیشه ای و درب اتوماتیک شیشه ای چشمی و درب اتوماتیک شیشه ای و درب اتوماتیک پارکینگ یزد

  28. I’m not sure exactly why but this weblog is loading incredibly slow for me.
    Is anyone else having this problem or is it a issue on my end?
    I’ll check back later on and see if the problem still exists.

  29. I just like the helpful info you provide in your articles.

    I’ll bookmark your weblog and take a look at again here regularly.
    I’m relatively sure I’ll be informed many new stuff right right here!
    Good luck for the next!

  30. Its such as you learn my mind! You seem to understand a lot approximately this, like you wrote
    the e book in it or something. I think that you just could do with some percent to power the message house a little bit, but other than that, this is excellent
    blog. A fantastic read. I will certainly be back.

  31. I will right away snatch your rss feed as I can’t to find your email subscription link or e-newsletter
    service. Do you have any? Kindly permit me recognize in order that I may just
    subscribe. Thanks.

  32. excellent issues altogether, you simply gained a
    brand new reader. What could you suggest in regards to your publish that
    you made some days in the past? Any certain?

  33. What i don’t realize is actually how you
    are now not actually much more neatly-preferred than you might be now.
    You’re very intelligent. You recognize thus considerably with regards to this matter,
    made me in my view imagine it from so many numerous angles.

    Its like women and men aren’t interested except it is something to do with
    Woman gaga! Your own stuffs nice. At all times take care of it up!

  34. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter
    updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like
    this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with
    something like this. Please let me know if you
    run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new
    updates.visit depositpulsatanpapotongan4d [] to see my

  35. Good day! This is kind of off topic but I need some advice from an established blog.

    Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I
    can figure things out pretty quick. I’m thinking about setting up my own but I’m not sure where to start.
    Do you have any points or suggestions? With thanks

  36. Hi there, I found your blog by means of Google while looking for a similar
    matter, your web site got here up, it appears great. I’ve bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

    Hi there, just become aware of your weblog thru Google,
    and found that it’s truly informative. I’m going to be careful for
    brussels. I’ll be grateful if you happen to continue
    this in future. A lot of other folks will likely be benefited from your writing.


  37. Hello would you mind stating which blog platform you’re working with?
    I’m going to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a tough time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.

    The reason I ask is because your design seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Apologies for getting off-topic but I had to ask!

  38. hello!,I really like your writing very a lot! percentage we keep in touch more approximately your post on AOL?
    I require a specialist on this house to unravel my problem.
    Maybe that is you! Looking forward to see you.

  39. I’m extremely impressed together with your writing abilities as well as with the structure in your
    weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog
    like this one nowadays..

  40. Excellent items from you, man. I’ve consider your stuff prior to and you’re just too
    wonderful. I really like what you’ve got right here, certainly like what you’re stating and the best way by which you assert it.

    You’re making it entertaining and you still care for to keep it sensible.

    I can’t wait to learn far more from you. This is really a great website.

  41. Do you mind if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit
    and sources back to your website? My blog is in the exact same area
    of interest as yours and my users would genuinely benefit from a lot of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this ok with you. Regards!

  42. Wow, awesome blog structure! How long have you been blogging for?
    you made blogging look easy. The entire glance of your website is magnificent, as neatly as
    the content!

  43. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up.

    The text in your article seem to be running off the screen in Internet explorer.

    I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser
    compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know.
    The design look great though! Hope you get the issue solved soon. Thanks

  44. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto
    a co-worker who had been conducting a little research on this.
    And he in fact bought me lunch simply because I discovered it
    for him… lol. So let me reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanks for spending some time to talk about this subject here on your site.

  45. Thanks for one’s marvelous posting! I definitely enjoyed reading it, you might
    be a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and may come
    back someday. I want to encourage that you continue your great posts, have a
    nice weekend!

  46. It is the best time to make a few plans for the long run and it is
    time to be happy. I’ve learn this put up and if I may just I desire to suggest you few attention-grabbing
    things or tips. Perhaps you can write next articles relating to this article.
    I wish to learn even more things approximately it!

  47. Hello! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d figured I’d ask.
    Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest writing a blog article or
    vice-versa? My site covers a lot of the same subjects as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other.
    If you might be interested feel free to shoot me an email.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Wonderful blog by the way!

  48. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do
    it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would like to know
    where u got this from. many thanks

  49. Excellent website you have here but I was wanting to know if you knew of any forums that cover the
    same topics talked about here? I’d really like to be a part
    of online community where I can get suggestions from other knowledgeable individuals
    that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let
    me know. Cheers!

  50. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a coworker who was doing a little homework on this.
    And he actually ordered me dinner simply because I stumbled upon it for him…

    lol. So let me reword this…. Thanks for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanx for spending time to discuss this matter here on your blog.

  51. You are so awesome! I don’t think I have read a single thing like this before.
    So good to find another person with some genuine thoughts
    on this topic. Seriously.. thanks for starting this up. This
    web site is something that is required on the internet, someone
    with a bit of originality!

  52. I don’t even understand how I finished up right here, however
    I assumed this put up was once good. I do not recognize who
    you might be however certainly you are going to a
    famous blogger in the event you are not already. Cheers!

  53. Hello! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform. I would be awesome if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  54. Pretty great post. I simply stumbled upon your blog and wanted to mention that I have really enjoyed browsing your blog posts. In any case I’ll be subscribing for your feed and I am hoping you write again soon!

  55. Hello there! This article couldn’t be written any better! Going through this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept talking about this. I am going to forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a very good read. Thanks for sharing!

  56. Howdy would you mind letting me know which webhost you’re working with? I’ve loaded your blog in 3 completely different internet browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most. Can you suggest a good internet hosting provider at a honest price? Thanks a lot, I appreciate it!

  57. Get ready to experience the delicious and unique flavors of pablo snus like never before! Our premium range of snus is sure to cater to all your snus cravings and elevate your snus experience. Join our community today and be a part of the world of pablo snus!

  58. Have you ever considered about including a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and all. Nevertheless think about if you added some great pictures or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and video clips, this website could certainly be one of the very best in its niche. Very good blog!

  59. My brother suggested I would possibly like this blog. He was totally right. This post actually made my day. You cann’t believe just how much time I had spent for this information! Thank you!

  60. Greetings from Ohio! I’m bored to death at work so I decided to check out your website on my iphone during lunch break. I really like the info you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home. I’m shocked at how quick your blog loaded on my mobile .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, wonderful site!

  61. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you, However I am encountering problems with your RSS. I don’t know why I am unable to subscribe to it. Is there anyone else getting the same RSS problems? Anyone who knows the solution will you kindly respond? Thanx!!

  62. When I originally commented I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I recieve four emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a way you can remove me from that service? Cheers!

  63. I simply could not depart your web site prior to suggesting that I extremely enjoyed the standard information a person supply in your visitors? Is going to be back regularly in order to check out new posts

  64. Our very own St Clements caves play host to this spine-tingling, subterranean spooky time this October half term! Find Gary the ghost’s haunting friends in the low-lit caves, enjoy some Halloween colouring in with the little ones and even design your own haunted mansion.